The word “diabetes” from Greek means “outflow”; so actually it means “out flowing of glucose” or “losing glucose” which shows that one of the basic symptoms of the disease is the loss of glucose with urine.
The history of diabetes goes back to 100 BS when it was first defined as the separate disease. In 100 BS a physician Aretains said that diabetes is a mysterious disease. These words are fair nowadays because the cause of the disease and its complications are still not explained. It is also still unclear how to treat the disease – the symptoms can be removed or eliminated but not the disease itself.
In XVII Tomas Willis was the first to find out the sweet taste of urine of patients with diabetes. His discovery was used by physicians to make a diagnosis. In 1889 Paul Langergans in his research work with microscopical structure of pancreatic gland saw the group of morphologically same cells called ‘islets of Langergans’ but he wasn’t able to explain their function and significance in the human body.
Mering and Mincovsky in 1889 in their experiments caused the developing of diabetes in animals by resecting pancreatic gland.
In 1921, Banty and Best extracted insulin from pancreatic tissues. This substance stopped the symptoms in diabetic dogs. Since then insulin has been the main cure of the disease.
In 1922 insulin was used to treat a man with diabetes.
In 1960 the chemical structure of human insulin was determined.
And in 1979 the human insulin was created using the method if genetic engineering.